Dextrose Trade Names: D₅₀W, D₁₂W, D₅W

Class: Carbohydrate, Hypertonic solution

Pharmacology:

Onset: Less than 1 mi
Duration: Depends on degree of hypoglycemia

Primary energy source distributed by blood to all tissues of body

Indications:
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Altered level of consciousness
  • Coma of unknown origin
  • Seizure of unknown origin
Contraindications:
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Increased intracranial pressure
  • Known or suspected stroke in the absence of hypoglycemia
Packaging: 25 g/50 mL pre-filled syringe
Dosages:
  • Adult: 12.5-25 g slow IV; may be repeated once
  • Pediatric: 0.5-1 g/kg IV/IO (max recommended concentration: 25%)
    2-4 mL/kg 25%
    5-10 mL/kg 10%
    10-20 mL/kg 5% (if volume tolerated)
Side Effects:
  • Warmth
  • Pain
  • Burning from medication infusion
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Thrombophlebitis
Special Considerations:

Pregnancy safety: Category C
Draw sample prior to administration if possible
Perform blood glucose analysis prior to administration if possible
Extravasation may cause tissue necrosis; use large vein and aspirate occasionally to ensure route patency
50% dextrose solution may precipitate severe neurological symptoms in thiamine patients